There’re always ways to achieve better life and we need to struggle to achieve it
Now I’m highlighting how people are trying to develop better mechanism to address environmental issues, especially forest protection. I refer to recent hot issues on payment environmental services (PES) and reduce emissions from deforestation and degradation (REDD). Both of them are built to address environmental issues that currently not handled by mainstream development in many countries.
What actually the prospect of these mechanism? What’s it current status? Do they really benefits to forests and its livelihood of local indigenous people?
Some organizations call PES as tools of conservation. According to CIFOR, PES aims to to translate external, traditionally non-marketed values of the environment into real financial incentives for landowners and land users to provide environmental services.
Practically, through PES, people will be rewarded by beneficiaries as their effort to maintain environmental services in certain period. A case study in Lampung of Indonesia, farmers are gaining financial incentives because they succeed to reduce erosion level at certain point. This reduction benefits to water users such hydro-electricity operators.
Watershed is one of environmental services. Other services are covered such by PES schemes are those related to carbon, biodiversity, and landscape beauty protection. While PES are operating in several countries, REDD mechanism is rising in the mainstream issues of climate change which pointed out deforestation as significant contributor of CO2 .
REDD topic was born in the context of avoided deforestation efforts. REDD facilitates financial incentives from developed countries and proposed to substitute Kyoto protocol after 2012. However it’s not clear how countries and forest people will receive the incentives. There are some organizations that managing the pilot activity in searching of suitable mechanism as well as ensuring how forest people fairly involved.
Keep your eye on while REDD pilot activities are started and see how PES mechanisms are working around the world. A recent publication of Ecological economics showing categories of PES programs:
- PES programs that small, focused on single service and ‘user-financed schemes’. These types are often quite successful in achieving their environmental objectives.
- PES programs that larger, with covers multi services scheme and often more diverse ‘government-financed schemes’. Therefore it operated in more cost efficient ways thus less effective in achieving their environmental goals.
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